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When no bones and teeth can be found in prehistoric sites, ESR dating on quartz extracted from sediments has been used to date sites whose ages range over the entire Quaternary period.
We present here two examples that occur in fluvial terraces of the river Creuse, France and at Monte Poggiolo site, Italy, where several artefacts of an archaic pebble industry have been recovered.
For example, for the field of 3350 G shown above, spin resonance occurs near 9388.2 MHz for an electron compared to only about 14.3 MHz for .
= 0.3350 T = 3350 G Because of electron-nuclear mass differences, the magnetic moment of an electron is substantially larger than the corresponding quantity for any nucleus, so that a much higher electromagnetic frequency is needed to bring about a spin resonance with an electron than with a nucleus, at identical magnetic field strengths.The upper spectrum below is the simulated absorption for a system of free electrons in a varying magnetic field.The lower spectrum is the first derivative of the absorption spectrum.Furthermore, EPR spectra can be generated by either varying the photon frequency incident on a sample while holding the magnetic field constant or doing the reverse.In practice, it is usually the frequency that is kept fixed.