Carbon 14 disequilibrium dating method

Uranium series disequilibrium: Unequal radioactivity of the intermediate radioisotopes (e.g., Ra) in the U-series decay chains resulting from changes in the respective elemental ratios (or called elemental fractionation) during a geological or environmental event or process.Once disequilibrium occurs, secular equilibrium status will be restored, or in...The radiocarbon method is based on the rate of decay of the radioactive or unstable carbon isotope 14 (14C), which is formed in the upper atmosphere through the effect of cosmic ray neutrons upon nitrogen 14.The reaction is: (Where n is a neutron and p is a proton). Secular equilibrium: A situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (due to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate.

Plants and animals which utilise carbon in biological foodchains take up 14C during their lifetimes.As 14C decays it emits a weak beta particle (b ), or electron, which possesses an average energy of 160ke V.The decay can be shown: Thus, the 14C decays back to 14N.These isotopes are present in the following amounts C12 - 98.89%, C13 - 1.11% and C14 - 0.00000000010%.Thus, one carbon 14 atom exists in nature for every 1,000,000,000,000 C12 atoms in living material.

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